1. "Results" of the relativity theories?

  • A deviation of a ray of light at passage near to the Sun.
    For the first time is calculated in the work (and precisely coincides with the subsequent result GRT):
    Astronomisches Jahrbuch für das Jahr 1804. Berlin 1801, S.161-172. Soldner, Johann v.: Über die Ablenkung eines Lichtstrahls von seiner geradlinigen Bewegung, durch die Attraktion eines Weltkorpers, an welchem er nahe vorbeigeht.
    It is reprinted in the work:
    Annalen der Physik. F. 4, Bd. 65. 1921, H. 7, S. 600-604. Soldner, Johann v.: Über die Ablenkung eines Lichtstrahls von seiner geradlinigen Bewegung durch die Attraktion eines Weltkorpers, an welchem er nahe vorbeigeht [1801]
    with Ph.Lennard's preface:
    Annalen der Physik. F. 4, Bd. 65. 1921, H. 7, S. 593-600. Lenard, Philipp: Vorbemerkung [zum Abdruck einer Arbeit von Soldner aus dem Jahr 1801].
    [The earlier history is the following: M.V.Lomonosov wrote about a deviation of a ray of light in the atmosphere of the Venus acting as a matter of fact as a gas lens still]
  • So-called "equivalence of mass and energy" E=mc²
    For the first time the Formula has appeared 33 years prior to A.Einstein in the work
    "Die allgemeine Bewegung der Materie als Grundursache aller Naturerscheinungen", Heinrich Schramm, 1872, Wilhelm Braumüller, k.k.Hof- und Universitäts-Buchhändler.
    It was discussed in N.Umov's works in 1873;
    It is received by Thomson in the article" About the electric and magnetic effect caused by movement of electrified bodies ", published in 1881 (see in russian: Kudryavtsev P.S., A course of history of physics, : Prosvesh'enie, 1974);
    It is received proceeding from Maxwell's theory in O.Hevisaid's work in 1890;
    As an example contains in A.Poincare's works in 1900 (Arch. neerland.sci., 2, 5, 232; In Boscha 1900: 252)
    It is considered in F.Hazenohrl's work in 1904:
    Zur Theorie der Strahlung in bewegten Korpern F. Hasenohrl, Ann. Phys., Band 15, Seite 344-370, (1904); 16, 589 (1905)
    [The longer history: Apparently, to the first the idea of possible transformation of light energy and mass each other was stated by Newton in the book "Optics" (Optiks, p. CVX, 1704); further it is necessary to mention book S.Tolver Preston "Physics of the Ether", 1875, where quantitative examples for quantity of the energy made by a matter, are given, which coincide with representations of the RT (see the book C.J. Bjerknes "Albert Einstein: The Incorrigible Plagiarist", XTX Inc.,Downers Grove, 2002); further, Olinto De Pretto results the given formula without a conclusion on June, 16th, 1903 and on February, 27th, 1904 (Reale Instituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, tomo LXIII, parte II, pp. 439-500); Frederick Soddi considered that the mass passes in energy at radioactive disintegration (see its book Radioactivity: An Elementary Treatise from Standpoint of the Desintegration Theory, London, 1904)]
  • Displacement of Mercury's perihelion
    The formula is received for the first time in the work (and precisely coincides with the subsequent result of the GRT):
    Paul Gerber, "Die räumliche und zeitliche Ausbreitung der Gravitation", Zeitschrift für Mathematik und Physik, Leipzig, 1898, Bd.43, S.93-104.
    Displacement of the perihelion of the Mercury also quantitatively calculated (two years prior to A.Einstein's work) by A.N.Krylov (see his "Lectures about the approached calculations").
  • Lorentz's transformations
    For the first time, importance of research of the group properties is specified by F.Klein in 1872.
    The wave equation (and Maxwell's equations) is invariant concerning variety of transformations that relativists try to hide, absolutising Lorentz's transformations only. The first of transformations concerning which the wave equation is invariant has been found for the first time by W.Voigt - so-called Voigt transformations (they mention - change - all three coordinates and time and differ from Lorentz's transformations).
    "Applied value of group-theoretic concepts for the differential equations was showed in the mathematical physics... Lorentz's transformations were found in 1887 by W.Voigt. It has proved invariancy concerning these transformations of the wave equation." (Rybnikov K.A., "History of mathematics: the textbook, : Moscow State University Publishing house, 1994, 496 pp., see p. 332-333, in Russian).
    Lorentz's transformations to that kind in what them use until now, are received by Larmour and are published in its work "Ether and matter" in 1900;
    They are received (not absolutely correctly) by Lorentz in 1904;
    Lorentz's transformations and their group properties are deduced and discussed in A.Poincare's work from June, 05th, 1905; Poincare has suggested to name these transformations by Lorentz's transformations.
  • The postulate on limiting character of the light velocity
    It is received and proved by Thomson in the article "About the electric and magnetic effect caused by movement of electrified bodies", published in 1881 (see Kudryavtsev P.S. "A course of history of physics", : Prosvesh'enie, 1974, in Russian).
  • The "relativistic" formula of velocity addition
    The formula of velocity addition, nowadays bearing a name relativistic, is received by Larmour and published in its work "Ether and matter" in 1900 (by means of this formula to the RT and without it, Larmour explained Fizeau experiment and the Fresnel entrainment coefficient; also in the work Larmour explained both an aberration and the Michelson experiment).
  • The principle of a relativity
    For the optical phenomena of the first order it is formulated by Lorentz in 1886; It was formulated by Poincare in 1895 (a series of articles), in 1900 (the Parisian Congress of physicists), in 1902 ("the Science and a hypothesis"), in 1905 (the book "Value of a science" and other articles).

  • 2. Other results

  • The Einstein-de Gaaz experiment
    The inquiry: on joint experiments it is reported on February, 19th, 1915 in Berlin at session of the German physical society, however Einstein has published the first work separately! (Einstein , "An experimental proof of Ampere's molecular currents", Naturwissenschaften, 1915; see the Collection of proceedings, M: Nauka, 1966, v.3, pp. 359-362, in Russian), and only the following paper was joint (A.Einstein, Gaaz, "The experimental proof of existence of Ampere's molecular currents";see The Collection of proceedings, M: Nauka, 1966, v.3, pp. 363-379, in Russian).
    The concept about Ampere currents existed hundred years prior to this experiment and had set of convincing proofs. For example, Kamerling-Onnes considered found out by it in 1911 superconductivity as the possible proof of existence of not fading Ampere currents for a magnetism explanation.
    The idea itself of experiment has earlier been stated in the well-known at that time book of J.Perri "Rotating gyroscope".
    Barnet has begun the experiments 6 years prior to publication of works of Einstein and de Gaaz, and has published them the same year that also they. However there is a big difference: Einstein has received result twice different from accepted now at declared accuracy in 10 percent (!) while Barnet has received correct result.


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